• Phillips, K.A.; Ospina, N.S.; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, R.; Castaneda-Guarderas, A.; Gionfriddo, M.R.; Branda, M. & Montori, V. (2018). Humor During Clinical Practice: Analysis of Recorded Clinical Encounters. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine31 (2), 270-278.
  • Abdullasim, N. & Suaib, N.M. (2018). Usability testing on game interface design using video-based behavior analysis. International Journal of Engineering & Technology7 (2.15), 142-145.
  • Nygardhs, S.; Ahlström, C.; Ihlström, J. & Kircher, K. (2018). Bicyclists’ adaptation strategies when interacting with text messages in urban environments. Journal for the measurement of Physical Behaviour20 (3), 377-388.

For more references, please check out Google Scholar.


Geriatrics – Connecting the person with dementia and family

“Video recordings were analysed by two independent coders (BS, CJ) using the Noldus ObserverXT 11.5 program, which allows users to code observational data in millisecond intervals.”

Moyle, W.; Jones, C.; Cooke, M.; O’Dwyer, S.; Sung, B.; Drummond, S. (2014). Connecting the person with dementia and family: a feasibility study of a telepresence robot. BMC Geriatrics, 14 (7), 1-11.


Infant behavior research – using The Observer XT to code infant behavior

“To calculate duration of fixation to the novel and familiar stimuli, digital videos of infants were slowed to 20% of their normal speed, and visual fixations to each stimulus were coded using Noldus, The Observer XT.”

Vogel, M.; Monesson, A.; Scott, L.S. (2012). Building biases in infancy: the influence of race on face and voice emotion matching. Developmental Science, 15 (3), 359-372.

“Acquisition hand preference was coded in the ObserverXT which permitted a frame-by-frame account of the hand used for an object acquisition.”

Campbell, J.M.; Marcinowski, E.C.; Babik, I.; Michel, G.F. (2015). The influence of a hand preference for acquiring objects on the development of a hand preference for unimanual manipulation from 6-14 months. Infant Behavior and Development, 39, 107-117.

Behavior analysis – using The Observer XT to analyze challenging behavior.


“This software allowed us to describe challenging behaviours accurately, quantify human behaviour, and generate results through a rigorous statistical analysis letting us select each variable analysed. In summary, The Observer XT offers the possibility of visualizing the context in which challenging behaviours occur many times, in order to discover functionality of those behaviours, the antecedents and consequences that determine them, as well as their frequency, duration and intensity. At the same time, the statistical analysis module allows us filter data and select relevant information in order to discover the factors that may be involved in maintaining the participant’s challenging behaviours.”

Delgado, C.; Garcia, R; Navarro, J.I. Hinojo, E. (2012) Functional analysis of challenging behaviours in people with severe intellectual disabilities using The Observer xT 10.0 software. Proceedings of Measuring Behavior 2012 (Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 28-31, 2012), 365-367.


Ergonomics – using The Observer XT to synchronize EMG data with specific tasks being performed

“The video and EMG data were loaded into video analysis software (NOLDUS Observer XT 8.0, Noldus Information Technology, Netherlands). All of the tasks performed were coded during observation using the program. This allowed assessment of the tasks performed, timing of tasks, number of lifts, location of lifts and the ability to synchronize the EMG data with the specific tasks being performed. The first stop was treated as a familiarization trial and was not analyzed.”

Hurley, K.; Marshall, J.; Hogan, K.; Wells, R. (2012). A comparison of productivity and physical demands during parcel delivery using a standard and prototype electric courier truck. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 42, 384-391.


Psychology, crime & law – using The Observer to analyze the effect of pretrial publicity on jury deliberations.

“The Observer software is a powerful behavior analysis tool that allows for the development of well organized coding schemes and event timing. This behavioral analysis tool was selected because of its potential to allow for more elaborate coding schemes and more accurate event timing than methods previously used to content analyze jury deliberations (e.g. transcribed deliberations or video observations using less sophisticated content analysis tools).”

Ruva, C.L.; LeVasseur, M.A. (2011). Behind closed doors: the effect of pretrial publicity on jury deliberations. Psychology, Crime & Law, DOI:10.1080/1068316X.2010.502120, 1-22.


Social research methodology – using The Observer XT to organize and manage large video corpora, assist in case selection, and facilitate comparability and cross referencing with a corpus.

“Observation software offers a way of sorting, storing, organising and systematically analysing a large data set……..Careful consideration must be given to the set-up of the system, in particular to the coding scheme. This initial investment in project set-up ultimately creates efficiency in the research process, as it negates the need to transcribe an entire corpus, and enables the researcher to identify and locate salient events quickly and easily………..Systematic observation software is therefore a tool worth exploring in video-based social research.”

Snell, J. (2011). Interrogating video data: systematic quantitative analysis versus micro‐ethnographic analysis, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 14 (3), 253-258.


Clinical communication research – using The Observer XT to record nurse-child interactive behaviors

“The coding scheme was implemented via specialized software, The Observer XT 8.0 system. This system displays the video clip of an interaction and the coding scheme on the same computer screen. When coders identify a behaviour that is described on the coding scheme, they press the key on the computer keyboard that was associated with the behaviour (e.g., ‘‘ps’’ for ‘‘permission seeking’’). The Observer XT8.0 system will then register the occurrence of the behaviour in the event log and automatically assign a timestamp. The duration of behaviour was calculated for the elapse of time between the beginnings of two mutually exclusive behaviours.”

Zhou, Y.; Cameron, E.; Forbes, G.; Humphris, G. (2012). Development of a novel coding scheme (SABICS) to record nurse-child interactive behaviours in a community dental preventive intervention. Patient Education and Counseling, 88 (2), 268 – 276.


Clinical communication research – using The Observer XT to synchronize the video signal with the physiological data

“Combining data from behavioral observation and psychophysiology may enhance the exploration of interplay between conscious and unconscious processes and lead to a better insight into the dynamics of emotion in medical interviews, with potential implications for the communication behavior of clinicians.”

Finset A, et al. Electrodermal activity in response to empathic statements in clinical interviews with fibromyalgia patients. Patient Educ Couns (2011), doi:1-.1016/j.pec.2010.12.029 (pdf)

“Skin Conductance Level was measured in microsiemens (mS), using the BIOPAC MP150 system, which was connected to a Windows 7 operated computer running Acknowledge 4.1 data acquisition program and Observer XT 10.0 (Noldus). The Observer program allowed us to synchronise SCL measures with the video-watching procedure.”


Sep, M.S.C.; Osch, M. van; Vliet, L.M. van; Smets, E.M.A.; Benzing, J.M. (2014). The power of clinicians’ affective communication: How reassurance about non-abandonment can reduce patients’ physiological arousal and increase information recall in bad news consultations. An experimental study using analogue patients. Patient Education and Counseling, 95, 45-52.


Clinical communication research – using The Observer XT to analyze doctor-patient interaction

“Recorded consultations were scored for radiation oncologists’ content of information provided and information giving performance, using specialized software, the Observer. This software also allowed calculating the time spent on providing information, for each type of information separately. Coding was done directly from videotapes.”

Smets, E.M.A.; Hillen, M.A.; Douma, K.F.L.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Koning, C.C.E.; Haes, H.C.J.M. de (2012). Does being informed and feeling informed affect patients’ trust in their radiation oncologist? Patient Education and Counseling,


Clinical communication research – using The Observer XT to analyze doctor-patient interaction

“In the next phase of the research, the paper coding scheme was converted to an electronic one for use with Noldus Observer XT (version 8). This software is designed for the coding of behavior directly from video. By using a computer-based coding system, we were able to more easily identify, quantify, and describe decision making segments. Such a system allows for coding of duration of decision making segments as well as sequence.”

Clayman, M.L.; Makoul, G. Harper, M.M.; Koby, D.G.; Williams, A.R. (2012). Development of a shared decision making coding system for analysis of patient-healthcare provider encounters. Patient Education and Counseling,


Visitor Studies – Timing and Tracking: Unlocking Visitor Behavior

“Electronic behavioral coding and analysis systems such as Noldus Observer have some distinct advantages over paper-and-pencil measures:

  • More accurate?for example, there is evidence that paper-and-pencil methods underestimate time at exhibits when exhibits are close together;
  • Able to record separate times for concurrent behaviors;
  • Not difficult to learn;
  • No data entry necessary?data are simply downloaded directly into SPSS or other spreadsheet software; and
  • Less obvious?a handheld PC does not attract nearly as much attention as a clipboard.

The most compelling reason to consider using software such as Noldus Observer is that it results in more accurate data”.

Yalowitz, S.S.; Bronnenkant, K. (2009) Timing and Tracking: Unlocking Visitor Behavior. Visitor Studies, 12 (1), p.47- 64.


Educational research – Collecting and coding observational data

“If your research team is Windows-based or cross-platform, The Observer XT appears to be the best solution”.

Edyburn, D.; Basham, J. (2008). Research and Practice. Collecting and Coding Observational Data. Journal of Special Education Technology, 23 (2), 56-60.


Psycho-Oncology – Nurse patient communication

“To ease coding procedures, the categories of the MIARS (Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale, red) were incorporated into Observer Video Pro software”.

Uitterhoeve, R.; Bensing, J.; Dilven, E.; Donders, R.; deMulder, P.; Achterberg, T. van (2009). Nurse-patient communication in cancer care: does responding to patient’s cues predict patient satisfaction with communication, Psycho-Oncology, 18 (10), p.1060-1068.


Women’s Health – Maternal role functioning

“Coding was accomplished using The Observer software by Noldus (www., which provided on-line, continuous, computer-assisted behavioral coding of variables. Two coders separately viewed the videotapes in real time but were able to stop and replay segments as well as edit coding”.

Logsdon, C.M.; Wisner, K.; Hanusa, B.H. (2009). Does maternal role functioning improve with antidepressant treatment in women with postpartum depression? Journal of Women’s Health, 18 (1), 85-90.


Sound therapy – Improving quality of life for the elderly and children with special needs

“Observer software from Noldus, a company specializing in digital observation tools, enables high levels of accuracy and complexity of descriptions”.

Ellis, P.; Leeuwen, L. van; Brown, K. (2008). Visual-Music Vibrations: Improving quality of life for the elderly and children with special needs, Digital Creativity.


Autism research – Child and adolescent psychiatry

“Videotapes were coded by means of the “The Observer”. This is a software system for recoding, coding and analyzing frequencies and durations of observed events. The use of this video tape analyses system enables coding behavior at different VCR playback speeds, while maintaining a proper time reference. This enables an exact coding (in hundredths of seconds) of the start and end of each occurrence of behavior”.

Flenthrope, J.L.; Brady, N.C. (2010). Relationships between early gestures and later language in children with fragile X syndrome, American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19, p. 135-142.

Jonge, M. de; Kemner, C.; Naber, F.; Engeland, H. van (2009). Block design reconstruction skills: not a good candidate for an endophenotypic marker in autism research, European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 18 (4), p. 197-205.